Kriegskunst im Mittelalter / Medieval
(for a larger view just click the embeded
Üblicherweise formierte sich eine
mittelalterliche Armee in drei "Blöcken" (auch "Treffen" oder "Battalione"
Das erste Treffen (Vorhut) bestand
aus Bogenschützen (oder Armbrustschützen) und Fußtruppen. Das zweite Treffen
bildete die Hauptstreitmacht (Fußtruppen und "schwere" Kavallerie). Das dritte
Treffen (Nachhut) bestand meist aus einer beweglicheren
Diese Ordnung wurde meist beim Marsch
benutzt. Große Streitkräfte betraten in dieser Aufstellung auch das
Schlachtfeld, denn eine Umgruppierung einer solchen Truppenansammlung war
zeitaufwendig oder schlicht logistisch nicht zu bewältigen.
Usually a medieval army was divided into
three sections (called "Battle" or "Battalion").
The first section (first battle) or
vanguard was composed of archers (or crossbowmen) and footwarriors.
The second section (center) was composed of footwarriors and "heavy"
cavalry, this section was built by the main troops. The third section
(rearguard) consisted of "light" (more agile) cavalry.
This was the common formation for marching
actions. Huge armies used to enter the battle field with this formation, cause
to regroup this mass of men and horses was nearly
Kleinere Truppenkontingente formierten
sich so, daß der rechte Flügel von der Vorhut gebildet wurde, die Mitte vom
Haupttruppenkontingent und der linke Flügel von der
Smaller contingents of
troops deployed on the battle field in this way:
right wing was formed by the vanguard, the
second battalion formed the center and the rearguard built the left
The mounted troops were often the decisive
factor of a medieval battle.
The most common way to a attack the
enemies lines by mounted knights, was the "frontal attack". This attack should
breaking the lines and split the enemies forces.
The bowmen were dangerous for the knights
but they had only a very short time to aim the targets and to fire the bows. The
time for them to attack the incoming knights was about 25 seconds!!!! A real
short time to fire onto a moving target.
An attacking formation of mounted knights
had a "shock" effect to the enemy. To face the closed formation of heavy armored
knights, coming along with heavy noice and shaking earth (not only the knights
were heavy weighted, their horses too!)! In this situation the morale of the
troops was often broken, long before the knights reached the
A second way to attack the enemy was the
attack onto the flanks of the enemies lines. But this attack was not the usual
way, because it wasn't as effective than the frontal attack. The frontal attack
opened up the enemies formation for the final attack of the dismounted troops or
broke the enemy and made him fleeing.
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